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Artículo Tomo 71, Número. 8, Octubre 2018

Archivos Españoles de Urología

Molecular biology of castration resistant prostate cancer.

Authors: Rafael Antonio Medina-López, Miquel Tarón, Ignacio Osman-García e Ignacio Duran.

Arch. Esp. Urol. 2018; 71 (8): 639-650

Vol. 71, Number. 8, October 2018

OBJECTIVES: Castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is an heterogeneous disease the molecular basis of which we are starting to know in depth. Currently, there are various pathways and targets under study, and probably many others to be characterized. In this paper, we review the most recent knowledge concerning the molecular biology of CRPC with a special focus on the therapeutic application of this knowledge.

METHODS: We performed a bibliographic review using PUBMED as the search engine, including the following terms: “Castration resistant prostate cancer”, “genomics”, “molecular biology”, “AR”, “WNT”, “mTOR”, “PTEN”, cell-cycle”, “DNA damage repair gene” and “chromatin modifier genes”.

RESULTS: CRPC has a high load of genetic alterations, probably derived from therapeutic pressure. The most frequent alterations involve the androgen receptor (RA) [60-70%] and the PI3K- AKT-mTOR [40-60%], even though other relevant pathways alterations have been identified such as those relative to cellular cycle [25%], DNA lesion repair genes [20%] and other pathway like WNT-βcatenin [15-22%]. The knowledge of these pathways is helping as a base for development of new therapeutic targets with promising results and multiple ongoing studies.

CONCLUSIONS: Over the last decade, the progress in the knowledge of the molecular bases of CRPC has been very relevant. Even though AR alterations are the most frequent and best characterized, anomalies in other pathways have been also identified as important in the biology of CRPC and derived a notable therapeutic development.

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