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Artículo Tomo 71, Número. 3, Abril 2018

Archivos Españoles de Urología

Preventive management of bone disease in advanced prostate cancer.

Authors: Antonio Rosino-Sįnchez

Arch. Esp. Urol. 2018; 71 (3): 258-266

Vol. 71, Number. 3, April 2018

OBJECTIVES: Prostate cancer is linked to bone disease by two different entities. On one hand, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) usually causes osteoporosis, on the other a great number of patients with advanced prostate cancer will present bone bicametastases, that condition not only their vital prognosis but also an important quality of life deterioration.

METHODS: We performed a bibliographic review on both the physiology and therapy of osteoporosis secondary to ADT and bone metastasis in prostatic neoplasias.

RESULTS: Osteoporosis: Long term ADT is associated with osteopenia/osteoporosis in 80% of the patients, with a 5-20% incidence of osteoporotic fractures. We should monitor bone mineral density before starting ADT therapy and during treatment. Treatment is based on risk factors reduction, regular physical exercise, calcium and vitamin D supplements, and drugs such as biphosphonates or denosumab. Bone metastasis: Currently, both zolendronic acid and denosumab have approval for the prevention of skeletal events in patients with castration resistant prostate cancer (CPRC). Although the last one seems to be more effective, it is associated with a higher risk of hypocalcemia and jaw osteonecrosis so that the choice of drug must be individualized in every patient. The duration of treatment is not clear. Currently, the indication for the use of this drugs in earlier phases of advanced disease is not approved.

CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive management of the patient with advanced prostate cancer should include the study and treatment of osteoporosis and bone metastases. Currently, very effective therapies are available for both entities.

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