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Artículo Tomo 71, Número. 8, Octubre 2018

Archivos Españoles de Urología

Castration resistance mechanisms in prostate cancer.

Authors: Sara Martínez-Breijo, Venancio Chantada-Abal, Marcos Aller-Rodríguez, Manuel Bohórquez- Cruz, Felipe Sacristán-Lista1, Jose Ponce-Díaz, Darío Vázquez-Martul y Leticia Lamas-Díaz.

Arch. Esp. Urol. 2018; 71 (8): 628-638

Vol. 71, Number. 8, October 2018

The androgen-signaling axis plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer. Since the landmark discovery by Huggins and Hodges, gonadal depletion of androgens has remained a mainstay of therapy for advanced disease. However, invariably progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) occurs within 2-3 years of initiation of ADT. Multiple mechanisms of resistance help contribute to the progression to castration resistant disease, and the androgen receptor (AR) remains an important driver in this progression. Molecular mechanisms behind AR reactivation in CRPC include AR gene amplification and overexpression, AR mutations, expression of constitutively active AR variants, intratumoral and adrenal androgen synthesis and promiscuous AR activation by other factors. Other AR-independent resistance mechanisms, including activation of glucocorticoid receptor, impairment of DNA repair pathways, immune-mediated resistance, neuroendocrine differentiation and microRNA expression, are also discussed.

Castration-resistant prostate cancer is a complicated disease, characterized by multiple resistance mechanisms to androgen deprivation treatment, and it remains an incurable disease. An understanding of the mechanisms underlying this resistance is necessary to identify future therapeutic targets as well as the identification and validation of novel predictive biomarkers of resistance; they may lead to improved therapeutics for mCRPC patients.

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