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Artículo Tomo 70, Número. 9, Noviembre 2017

Archivos Españoles de Urología

Complications of radical prostatectomy.

Authors: Cristina Redondo, Franšois Rozet, Guillermo Velilla, Rafael Sßnchez-Salas y Xavier Cathelineau.

Arch. Esp. Urol. 2017; 70 (9): 766-776

Vol. 70, Number. 9, November 2017

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article is to classify and describe the different types of complications of radical prostatectomy, their frequency of appearance, as well as the different factors that may influence their development.

METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was carried out, based on the search of published articles between 2002 and 2015.

RESULTS: Laparoscopic or robotic radical prostatectomy may require conversion into open surgery, and these cases are significantly associated with longer hospital stay and greater rate of complications. Vascular damage comprises from injuries to small and medium caliber vessels (Santorini plexus or epigastric vessels) to possible lesions of large vessels (iliac), although they are infrequent. The most common nerve injury is that of the obturator nerve, which can be treated in the case of a complete section, and in incomplete lesions, damage is usually reversible. Intestinal injury is one of the most serious complications because it could be lifethreatening. Rectal injury is a complication that needs a correct diagnosis and intraoperative treatment, since it may lead to the development of a secondary rectourethral fistula. Such fistulae in most cases require surgical treatment. Lymphocele is a characteristic complication of radical prostatectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy, requiring treatment only in cases of complication. Anastomotic leakage is a frequent complication, and a prognostic factor for the later development of anastomosis stricture. Some of the factors that seem to influence the development of complications are associated comorbidity, anatomical factors, surgical approach and surgical experience, among others.

CONCLUSIONS: It is crucial to know the potential complications of radical prostatectomy, as well as the associated risk factors, in order to avoid their appearance.

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