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Artículo Tomo 70, Número. 1, Ene/Feb 2017

Archivos Españoles de Urología

May renal lithiasis be really prevented? New trends and therapeutic tools.

Authors: Félix Grases, Antonia Costa-Bauzá y Rafael M. Prieto.

Arch. Esp. Urol. 2017; 70 (1): 91-102

Vol. 70, Number. 1, Jan/Feb 2017

Renal calculi are generally formed as a result of the combination of certain factors, some related to urine composition (concentration of lithogenic substances, deficiency of crystallization inhibitors, presence of heterogeneous nucleants) and others with renal morphology and anatomy (urinary tract stasis, low urodynamic efficiency cavities, morpho-anatomic deformations, renal papillary tissue lesions). In fact, the composition, macrostructure and microstructure of the calculus will clearly depend on the factors that have induced it. For this reason, the appropriate study and classification of the renal calculi simplifies the diagnosis and allows a more effective therapeutic approach since it can be oriented to directly correct the etiological factors responsible for stone formation. In this article, we review the main etiological factors involved in the formation of each type of calculus and the prophylactic measures that can be adopted for proper correction.

The most frequent kidney stones have been classified into the following types: calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi, calcium oxalate monohydrate non-papillary calculi, calcium oxalate dihydrate calculi, mixed hydroxyapatite/ calcium oxalate calculi, carboxyapatite/hydroxyapatite calculi, brushite calculi, struvite/carboxyapatite calculi, uric acid calculi, uric acid/calcium oxalate monohydrate calculi, and cystine calculi.

Occasionally, however, the calculus is not available for study, in which case the only way forward is to use all available information (clinical history, life habits, radiological data), together with basic biochemical information, to identify and correct all etiological factors related to renal lithiasis that have been identified.

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